1.) Impulse Archeology by Eldon Garnet - Social Science - 2005 "Fights between lions and tigers have been staged. The tiger always wins"
2.) The Man-Eaters of Eden: Life and Death in Kruger National Park by Robert Frump - Nature - 2006 - 216 pages Page 91 Put them together, who wins the fight?" "There is no doubt that in one-on-one combat," says the African game ranger, "the lion would lose. The Bengal tiger on average weighs about five hundred fifty pounds - a one-hundred-pound weight advantage"
3.) Our Animal Friends and Foes by William Atherton Du Puy, Edward William Nelson - Science - 2004 "So is the lion of Africa, wrongly styled the king of beasts because another cat, the tiger, is bigger, fifty pounds heavier, and has mastered the lion on many occasions, notably in the days when such creaturs were matched in battle in the Roman arenas."
4.) The Windsor Magazine - Page 20 1896 "most naturalists are agreed that the average lion is no match for the average tiger, being not only generally smaller but much slower and more clumsy in his movements"
5.) The Journal of Science, and Annals of Astronomy, Biology, Geology … - Page 399 by James Samuelson, William Crookes - Science - 1871 The lecturer added that he was sorry to upset the superstitions of childhood, but the tiger is a much more powerful animal than the lion, and will always beat the latter. The lion had a great mane and looked big"
6.) The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge, Page 622 TIGER, the largest and most admirable of the cats (Felis Tigris) In size and power it surpasses the lion, as it does in beauty, and expresses the highest type of feline structure
7.) Circus Parade by Jim Tully, Autobiography. Page 162 - 163 A tiger named Ben Royal Kills a lion named Bad Bill "Bad Bill had been separated from the other lions on account of the growing fierceness of his disposition. Anderson placed him in a cage next to Ben Royal, a Bengal tiger.I had often speculated on weather or not Ben Royal could whip Bad Bill. He was at least forty or fifty pounds lighter. I had remembered reading in a history of Rome, as a child, that five lions had always been sent into the arena against four tigers. That seemed proof to me that the tiger was the lions master. I had onced talked about it to Denna Wyoming. "Bad Bill," said he, "can lick anything that walks or swims in the world." Anderson, then the chief assistant trainer laughed out loud when I told him about it. "Ben Royal kin tear Bill's heart out in three minutes," was his comment.Breakfast, an alarm sounded over our canvas world. Anderson was nowhere to be found. The rope which held the partition which separated Ben Royal and Bad Bill had been cut. Many of us had heard a lion roar in the night but had paid no further attention. Bad Bill was found, his throat torn, his stomach ripped open, and part of his carcass eaten. Ben Royal, with bloody jaws, dozed near him.
8.) Reference: Martial De Spectaculis 21 While the trainers of the rhinoceros may have trembled in fear at the fate that awaited them if their animal failed to perform, and another trainer was savaged by his lion, some were more successful. One trainer was noted for his tigress which, though tame enough to lick his hand, had torn a lion to pieces, "a novelty unknown in any times"
9.) The captivity,sufferings, and escape,of James Scurry, By James Scurry, William Whiteway. 1824 Page: 130 "In England we have generally been taught to consider the lion as the king of the forest; but to convince me of this, would be a difficult task, as I have frequently been an eye-witness of the strength, fierceness, and agility of the tiger; to which the lion, in these qualities, is much inferior."
10.) Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Exhibiting a View of the Progressive Discoveries and Improvements in the Sciences and the Arts - Page 57: In these games a woman fought with a lion. An elephant, after having trampled to death a bull, went and knelt to the emperor; a royal tiger killed a lion; and wild cattle dragged chariots.
11.) Gerald L. Wood, "Animal Facts and Feats; A Guinness Record of the Animal Kingdom", Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, 1972 Page - 78 "a tigress in a menagerie at Birmingham seized a lion by the throat and killed it in a few minutes"
12.) Gerald L. Wood, "Animal Facts and Feats; A Guinness Record of the Animal Kingdom", Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, 1972 Page - 77 "two staged fights' were mentioned, the tiger won both, 'the tiger gripped the lion with both forepaws, rolled it over on its back and then began tearing indiscriminately with both teeth and hind-claws, making no particular effort to reach its rival's mane-protected throat. The lion had no answer to this form of attack and was quickly killed.', And the other lion had its neck crushed.
13.) Kesri Singh, Oct. 26, 1955, "Experiments in implanting African lions into MadhyaBharat"-Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. 53, Page - 465 - 468 Mr. Singh arranged duels between the lion and the tiger in three experiments on three different occasions, the tiger won all three
14.) Gettysburg Compiler, Gettysburg, PA., Feb. 7, 1899 (No. 23): "Lion against Tiger: An extraordinary combat in which the king of the beasts was vanquished in a battle to the death."
15.) Charles Darwin, "The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex, 1871 Page - 266-267 "In 1857 a tiger at Bromwich broke into the cage of a lion and a fearful scene ensued: 'the lion's mane saved his neck and head from being much injured, but the tiger at last succeeded in ripping up his belly, and in a few minutes he was dead' "
16.) Wild Cats of the World By Fiona Sunquist. Page 287 "In the Middle Ages a few lions were kept in European menageries in Germany, England France and Italy. The best known of these early zoological collections was one belonging to Henry I of England that was eventually moved to the Tower of London, where it remained until 1840. Occasionally lions where forced to fight tigers, but apparently the tigers always won. This observation was confirmed more recently in the 1950s by a keeper at the Bronx Zoo, where a lion cub Zambezi and a young tiger named Ranee were raised together. Their occasional fights always resulted in the victory for the tiger. Alfred Martini, the keeper, described the tiger as being a better fighter, "like a clever boxer against a heavy hitter, shrewder and trickier"
17.) Count Belisarius - Page 51 by Robert Graves -1938 "Occasional fights were also staged between lion and tiger (the tiger always won) or wolves and bull (the wolves always won, if in health, by attacking the …"
18.) A Handy Book of Curious Information: Comprising Strange Happenings in the … - Page 497 by William Shepard Walsh - Encyclopedias and dictionaries - 1913 "They have accidentally got into each other's cages, and the tiger has killed the lion."
19.) The Eclectic Magazine - Page 547 by John Holmes Agnew, Walter Hilliard Bidwell - 1844 "Feats of strength are authenticated of the tiger to which the lion can, on evidence, lay no claim ; and of the courage before man, the evidence is all on…"
20.) This amazing planet - Page 27 by Roy Chapman Andrews - Natural history - 1940 "A tiger is a better fighter than a lion. As far as I can discover, there is only one instance on record of a lion beating a tiger"
21.) Big Game Shooting - Page 195 by Clive Phillipps-Wolley, Samuel White Baker, Reginald Heber Percy - Hunting - 1894 "The lion is a less active animal than the tiger, and apparently not so powerful ; in every case of a fight between the two occurring in a menagerie the tiger has invariably killed his opponent"
22.) 1759: The Year Britain Became Master of the World by Frank McLynn: Published 2005 Atlantic Monthly Press, Page: 163 "George Stubbs, the most famous and original animal painter of his time who was just reaching his peak in 1759, liked to display combats of lion versus tiger, though he did not commit the egregious mistake made in James Ward's animal pictures painted later in the century where the lion symbolizes Britain and the tiger India; in reality, as we know very clearly from the obscene animal fights staged by the Ancient Romans in the arena, the tiger would win in such a sight every time."
23.) PBS Website - The Living Edens "When the ancient Romans set tiger against lion in the coliseum, the tiger invariably won."
24.) Lions 'n' Tigers 'n' Everything - Page 68 by Courtney Ryley Cooper - Performing Arts - 2004 "The clash between the lion and the tiger invariably ends in a victory for the striped beast"
25.) Wild Animals in and out of the Zoo by William M. Mann, Director, National Zoological Park, Vol. 6 of the Smithsonian Scientific Series, 1930, Page 82 "In the records of the Roman arena we found that the tiger was usually victorious in such a combat."
26.) The Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia by Tim Hunkin "In fights between a tiger and a lion in the wild, the tiger is usually the winner."
27.) An Outspoken Soldier, His Views and Memoirs: His Views and Memoirs - Page 90 by Giffard Le Quesne Martel - Biography & Autobiography - 1949 "They are natural and deadly enemies and the lions were killed off almost at once when they entered tiger's preserves."
28.) Wild Beasts: A Study of the Characters and Habits of the Elephant, Lion … by John Hampden Porter - Animal behavior - 1894 - Page 239 "How often a conflict between animals so formidable ends in the assailant's repulse or death, we do not know, neither can we say whether bison's are habitually attacked by tigers. Lions destroy the African buffalo either singly or by taking odds ; and in a personal contest, the tiger would generally have the advantage over a lion. They have often been pitted against each other, and the general result is well known to be as stated. Junglar, who belonged to the King of Oude, killed thirty lions, and destroyed another after being transferred to the zoological garden in London. "
29.) Pets and playfellows; or, Stories about cats and dogs - Page 162 by Elizabeth Surr - 1885 "In fair fight the royal tiger would be certain to come off conqueror, for he is even bolder and stronger than a lion"
30.) The Medical Times and Gazette: A Journal of Medical Science, Literature …Medical - 1850 Page 626 "But the Roman emperor was determined to try whether the Bengal tiger could fight the African lion, and Martial records that the tigers and lions fought, and that the tigers always beat the lions."
31.) Natural history sketches among the carnivora: wild and domesticated - Page 21 by Arthur Nicols - 1885 "To this may be added the testimony of Martial, from actual observation of the contests in the arenas, where the tigers always killed their antagonists"
32.) Nature - Page 495 by Norman Lockyer, Nature Publishing Group - Science - 1875 "Martial also states that the tigers always killed the lions in the amphitheater. The lion is, in truth, a pretentious humbug, and owes his reputation to his imposing mane"
33.) Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society - Page 393 by Bombay Natural History Society - Natural history - 1949 "Even a full-grown lion has been known to be no match for a full-grown tiger, the lioness therefore had even less chance, and the poor creature lost her life"
34.) Tales of travelers; or, A view of the world - Page 453 by Tales of travelers - 1838 "The tiger in the East Indies is more powerful than any met with in other parts of the world. It is the undisputed master of the Indian forest. Indeed the royal tiger of Bengal is more than a match for the Asiatic lion. A British officer, who resided many years at Sierra Leone, was repeatedly a spectator of combats between the lion and the tiger, in which the latter was universally victorious."
35.) The marvels of nature in earth, in sky, and sea, 1880 - Page 300 "It would appear from the most correct accounts that the Lion is hardly a match for this formidable creature. The Tiger is as beautiful as dreadful"
36.) The Medical Times and Gazette: A Journal of Medical Science, Literature … Medical - 1850 Page 626 "The tiger, if in good condition, invariably kills the lion when compelled to fight."
37.) Curiosities of natural history - Page 234 by Francis Trevelyan Buckland - 1866 "The tiger immediately attacked the Lion, catching him by the throat, and in a few minutes killed him. This same tiger is, I believe, still being exhibited in Edmonds's menagerie."
38.) The Year-book of Facts in Science and Art - Page 284 by John Timbs, Charles W. Vincent, James Mason - Science - 1872 He stated that when the Bengal tiger and African lion fought … the Roman amphitheaters, the tiger killed the lion"
39.) Natural history sketches among the carnivora: wild and domesticated - Page 21 by Arthur Nicols - 1885 "Many of the foregoing facts leave no doubt of the greater ferocity and courage of the tiger as compared with the lion. can be equally little question of his greater strength, which has been shown by Houghton to be only 69'9 per cent, for the fore limb, and 65'9 per cent, for the hind limb in the lion"
40.) Economic Zoology: An Introductory Text-book in Zoology, with Special … by Herbert Osborn - Zoology - 1908 Page 457 "The lion, while usually termed the king of beasts, is inferior to the Bengal tiger in strength and endurance, and the title properly belongs to that species"
41.) The Cyclopedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial … - Page 493 1873 "It is moreover unlikely that an Indian lion could contend wilh the tiger as it is much inferior in size and strength."
42.) The Illustrated Natural History - Page 162 by John George Wood - Natural history - 1865 "The same Tiger is also celebrated for his battle with a lion, resulting in the death of the latter. The two creatures had been put into one large cage, or box, which was divided by a partition in the center, so as to separate the two animals. While the attendants were" at their breakfast, the Tiger battered down the too frail barrier, and leaping into the lion's chamber, entered into fierce combat. Not even the keepers dared interfere to stop the battle, which raged until it was terminated by the slaughter of the lion. The poor beast never had a chance from the beginning, for it was weakened by three years' captivity, and had lost the swift activity of its wild nature. Its heavy mane defended its head and neck so well, that the Tiger could not inflict any severe injury on those portions, and the fatal wounds, under which it sank, were all upon the flanks and abdomen,which were torn open by the Tiger's claws."
43.) The Dublin university magazine - Page 409 by University magazine, Dublin city, univ - 1877 "He mentions a case in which a tiger in a menagerie burst through the partition of his den into a lion's, and in a few minutes killed him."
44.) Administration of Public Education - Page 360 by Stephen J. Knezevich - Education - 1975 - 620 pages "The answer is that there would be one dead lion. The tiger is much quicker, much more powerful than the lion. But what would happen if ten lions were put in…"
45.) Sir David Attenborough "If an adult male tiger and an adult male lion were to fight, the tiger would win hands down, it has far superior strength and ability, contrary to popular belief the tiger is the true king of the jungle."
46.) Animal Facts and Feats, A Guinness Record of the Animal Kingdom by Gerald L. Wood, 1972 Page - 78 "Alfred Court, another famous wild-animal trainer, had three enormous Siberian tigers at one time but he was afraid to put them in a mixed group with lions and other animals for fear there would be a massacre. Instead, he used them in a tiger act with four Bengal tigers, but even then he said he was always terrified they would attack their smaller relatives."
47.) Chicago Daily Tribune - Apr 22, 1882 A TIGER KILLS A LION. Exciting Scenes Incidental to Moving a Menagerie. Chicago Daily Tribune "In the same den were kept two lions and two tigers, seperated by a strong wooden partition. To such a pitch of ferocity was one of the tigers stirred by the arrangements for removal that he threw himself into a very frenzy of rage against the partition, pounced apon one of the lions, and, before keepers could lift an arm, fixed his fangs deep in the throat of his victim."
48.) Boston Daily Globe - Jul 19, 1909 TIGER WHIPS LION Two Fight in Ring at a Coney Island Show. Spectators on Verge of Panic and Several Women Faint.
49.) The Sheboygan Press (Newspaper) - November 3, 1943 "Q. Can .1 tiger beat a lion in a fight? A. The tiger is a better fighter than a lion and Dr. Roy Chapman Andrews has stated that there is only one instance on record where a lion beat a tiger"
50.) Daily Times News (Newspaper) - February 27, 1974 "That the typical tiger is a fiercer fighter than the typical lion is common knowledge. Less widely known is what gives that tiger the advantage. Simple thing. The lion stands on three paws to maul with the fourth. But the tiger balances itself on its hind legs to maul with both front paws simultaneously. Moment by moment, the fighting paws on the tiger's side generally out-number the fighting paws on the lion's side by two to one."
51.) The Newark Advocate - September 13, 1928, When a tiger and a lion fight each other, which wins? J. McC. A. Authorities differ as to the fighting qualities of a tiger and a lion. However, records show that in more instances, when the two animals fight, the tiger is the victor,"
52.) Animal Facts and Feats: A Guinness Record of the Animal Kingdom. Gerald L Wood. Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, 1977 (& 1972). - Page 75 "… ancient Roman arena where lion versus tiger fights were often staged for the gratification of the crowds. In most of these combats the tiger emerged the winner"
53.) Tiger: The Story of the Indian Tiger. Kailash Sankhala, 1977 -Page 7 "If we are to believe the records of the old Roman arena, … during those lusty days, a lion and a tiger were frequently matched …and in such a combat the tiger usually won"
54.) Animal Life and Lore, by Osmond P. Breland, 1963 Page 7 "Most biologists who have dared to express their opinions on the subject also consider the tiger a better fighter than the lion. A well-known biologist has suggested why the tiger usually wins in such encounters. He states that when a tiger fights it balances itself on its hind legs and strikes with both front paws. He says that he once saw a staged fight between a tiger and a lion, which the tiger won. The tiger used both paws, but the lions used only one at a time, and this situation turned out to be quite disadvantageous to the well-being of the lion"
55.) Elements of Physical Geography: Together with a Treatise on the Physical ... by John Brocklesby, Samuel Augustus Mitchell - Physical geography - 1868 Page 139 "More active than the lion, and its equal and perhaps its superior ' in strength, is the royal tiger, which is found only in Asia"
56.) McClure's Magazine - Page 86 1893 DIFFERENCES AMONG BEASTS IN STRENGTH AND FIERCENESS. "It is the opinion of tamers that the tiger is more to be feared than the lion"
57.) Comparative Zoology, Structural and Systematic: For Use in Schools and Colleges - Page 395 by James Orton, Charles Wright Dodge - Zoology - 1895 - 434 pages "The Lion is the king of beasts in majesty, but not in strength. Five men can easily hold down a Lion, while it requires nine to control a Tiger."
58.) The Royal Tiger of Bengal: His Life and Death - Page 12 by Joseph Fayrer, Joseph Fayrer Sir, bart - Tigers - 1875 "the largest tiger exceeds the largest lion in size as much as in strength"
59.) The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art - by John Holmes Agnew, Harry Houdini Collection (Library of Congress), 1883 Page 547 "Is the lion or the tiger the superior in courage and strength ? There is little evidence on record to help us to a decision, but all that there is is completely in favor of the tiger. The two animals have been put..."
60.) Sport & Wild Life in the Deccan: An Account of Big-game Hunting - Page 92 by Reginald George Burton - Hunting - 1928 "Even as regards general appearance the tiger is superior to the lion; its colour is infinitely more beautiful than the drab coat of the lion..."
61.) Dearborn Independent Magazine January 1927-October 1927 - Page 12 by Henry Ford - History - 2003 - 544 pages "...this is much the same kind of error as that of calling the lion the king of beasts, though the tiger is superior in size and ferocity"
62.) LIVINGSTONES'S TRAVELS AND RESEARCHES IN SOUTH AFRICA - Page 77 by David Livingstone - 1859 "With respect to its great strength there can be no doubt. The immense masses of muscle around its jaws, shoulders, and forearms proclaim tremendous force. They would seem, however, to be inferior in power to those of the Indian tiger. Most of those feats of strength that I have seen performed by lions, such as the taking away of an ox, were not carrying, but dragging or trailing the carcass along the ground:"
63.) New York Times - Apr 3, 1955 Hold that tiger: "Cat for cat, the Indian lion is no match for the Indian tiger, and has been fighting a losing battle for survival. A couple of months ago, the Indian Government stocked some lions, at the same time ordering some tigers shot to give the lions a chance."
64.) Daily Review, The (Newspaper) - December 2, 1976, Hayward, California Subscription - Daily Review, The - Newspaper Archive - Dec 2, 1976 He says he has an 18-month-old Siberian tiger named Lasky that weighs 700 pounds, ... In a head-to-head battle, I'd bet on the tiger. The lion has an advantage with that mane,so you get a mouthful of hair before you reach his neck, but the tiger is swift and can think.
65.) Chilton Times - January 7, 1858, Chilton, Wisconsin Subscription - Chilton Times - Newspaper Archive - Jan 7, 1858 extraordinary fight between a lion and a tiger in a menagerie is mentioned by a late English paper.The tiger was only eighteen months old, but of very large size, the lion was aged some six or seven years.
66.) New York Times, July 19, 1909 'Another fight at Bostocks' "As Falkendorgh, a trainer in Bostocks animal show at Dreamland, Coney Island, was bringing his seven lions into shape to form a pyramid before 1,500 people last night, with Mogul, a new Bengal tiger, chained to a cage in the ring, he turned his back to a lion named Caesar and Caesar jumped at him. Falkendorgh half turned and jumped forward and the big lion's claws only ripped his back and sent him to the ground; but then as women screamed and attendants, firing blank cartridges, ran into the ring, another of the seven big lions, Prince, sprang with a roar from his pedestal straight at Mogul. Mogul, snarling and crouching, was ready. The two beasts struggled together, biting and striking with their claws. They snarled and roared and filled the air with sawdust as they twisted and strained, each trying to get on top, lashing with their tails. Falkendorgh, swinging his long whip beat Caesar back to his cage, but Mogul and Prince, striking and biting, fought on in spite of the attendants, and several women fainted, many screamed, and one was taken with a fit. At last, with bars of iron and long whips, they beat Prince off from Mogul and drove him, snarling and limping, his flanks streaming blood and face torn and bitten, to his cage. Mogul, in spite of his chains, had got the best of the fight."
67. The New York Times, April 23, 1871 'The Wild-Beast Market' "...The after history of this tiger is peculiar. Being now a star actor in the tragic line, he was sold at a tall figure to an English manager, who advertised him as "the tiger who had swallowed a live boy" Crowds flocked to see him. On one occasion, however, he broke loose again, and vented his rage on a noble lion, whom he dispatched in a twinkling. The tiger is certainly more dangerous than the lion, as he seems to add a peculiar cunning to his natural ferocity"
68. Animal Facts and Fallacies: With Decorations? - Page 70 by Osmond Philip Breland - Zoology Because of the ballyhoo attached to the noble title "king of the beasts," many people are of the opinion that the lion is capable of overcoming any animal
69.) St.Nicholas, by Mary Mapes, 1888, Page 568 Then a lion was matched with a tiger, but most unequally; for the lion, being inferior in strength and courage, was speedily killed.
70.) The Idler, Published by Chatto and Windus, 1899, Page 316 there are several well-known cases of tigers having killed lions.
The following are theories that support the notion that tigers are the main reason why lions no longer inhabit India:
1.) Kesri Singh, Oct. 26, 1955, "Experiments in implanting African lions into Madhya Bharat " - Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. 53, (p. 465-46 8) "…It (the tiger) was more cunning and powerful than the lion and therefore it killed off or drove the lion away from the areas it occupied." (p.465)
2 Kenneth Anderson, "The Call of the Man-Eater", Chilton Books, Philadelphia and New York, 1961 "Then the tiger came down from the north-from Siberia and Manchuria-and the lion slowly began to lose ground before that more active animal." (p. 210)
3 Richard Perry, "The World of the Tiger", Atheneum, New York, 1965 "If tigers arrived in India later than lions, as is possible, then there is every probability that they were the containing factor." (p.165)
4 Jack Denton Scott, "Speaking Wildly", William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York, 1966 "Often larger and stronger than the lion, the tiger is credited with driving it from India, …" (p. 256)
5 Franklin Russell, "The Hunting Animal", Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., New York, 1983 "…The lion … reaching northern India before they were halted, presumably by tigers coming from the other direction." (p.3 8)
6 Dionne Bunsha, "A kingdom too small", Frontline , Vol. 22, Issue 10, May 7-20, 2005 "They say it is dangerous for the lions to be in tiger territory. But just eight tigers in Kuno pose no grave threat. …."
9 Robin David, TOI Ahmedabad Bureau, "Should Gir lions be shifted to MP?", Times of India, June 23, 2006 "Conservationists are united when it comes to the need to have an alternate home for the lion so that its gene pool can be protected and its population be encouraged to grow again in areas other than Gujarat where it once ruled the forests till it was edged out by the tigers and humans. While some such attempts in the past have failed, others say Gujarat's pride is not as important as preserving the lion.